Cardiology is concerned with the normal functionality of the heart and the deviation from a healthy heart. Many disorders involve the heart itself but some are outside of the heart and in the vascular system. Collectively, the two together are termed the cardiovascular system and diseases of one part tend to affect the other. Some diseases of the heart include heart attack, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease,
Current Clinical Trials Related to Cardiology
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries.
Atrial fibrillation is an irregular and often rapid heart rate that occurs when the two upper chambers of your heart experience chaotic electrical signals. The result is a fast and irregular heart rhythm. The heart rate in atrial fibrillation may range from 100 to 175 beats a minute.
A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or cut off completely (View an animation of blood flow). This happens because coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood flow can slowly become narrow from a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that together are called plaque. This slow process is known as atherosclerosis. When a plaque in a heart artery breaks, a blood clot forms around the plaque. This blood clot can block the blood flow through the heart muscle.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) happens when the left side of your heart doesn’t pump blood out to the body as well as normal. … This is because your left ventricle doesn’t squeeze forcefully enough during systole, which is the phase of your heartbeat when your heart pumps blood.
Hyperkalemia is the medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that’s higher than normal. Potassium is a chemical that is critical to the function of nerve and muscle cells, including those in your heart. Your blood potassium level is normally 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).
Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death. Blood pressure is the force that a person’s blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels.
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia is an abnormally fast heartbeat. A normal heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute, but those with Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia will experience over 100 beats per minute.
Other Types of Diseases Related to Cardiology
An arrhythmia is an issue with the rhythm or rate of your heartbeat. It could be that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular pattern. The most common type of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which causes an irregular and fast heartbeat. Many things can affect your heart’s rhythm, like a previous heart attack, smoking, congenital heart defects, and a lot of times stress. Some medicines may also cause arrhythmias.
Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease that makes it hard for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body which can lead to heart failure. Symptoms can include breathlessness, swelling in the lower extremities, abdominal bloating, fatigue, and rapid heart beat.
High cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is a form of high blood lipids and hyperlipoproteinemia (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood). Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.
Statin intolerance occurs when a patient is unable to continue to use a statin, either because of the development of a side effect or because of evidence on a blood test that certain markers of liver function or muscle function (creatine kinase) are sufficiently abnormal to cause concern.
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