Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They’re normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.
Current Clinical Trials Related to Infectious Diseases
COVID-19 is caused by a coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. Older adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness.
The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. Over time, they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
Staphylococcus aureus or “staph” is a type of bacteria found on human skin, in the nose, armpit, groin, and other areas. While these germs don’t always cause harm, they can make you sick under the right circumstances. Staph aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, such as abscesses, boils, furuncles, and cellulitis (red, swollen, painful, warm skin). Staph aureus germs can also cause more serious infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves), and bone and joint infections. Staph aureus is spread by touching infected blood or body fluids, most often by contaminated hands.
Other Types of Diseases Related to Infectious Disease
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Most people who are infected have no symptoms. When symptoms do develop this can take a few weeks following infection to occur. Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge or burning with urination. Symptoms in men may include discharge from the penis, burning with urination, or pain and swelling of one or both testicles.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years. You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea.
Influenza, commonly known as “the flu”, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks.
Lyme Disease is a bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash and, if left untreated, can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Most people who get Lyme disease get a rash around the tick bite though it may not appear until long after the tick bite. At first, the rash looks like a red circle, but as the circle gets bigger, the middle changes color, so the rash look’s like a bulls-eye. Some people don’t get a rash, but feel sick, like they have the flu.
Traumatic Skin Wounds
Skin and skin structure infections/ soft tissue infections remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite improved understanding of risk factors and an array of antibiotics and prophylactic measures that can be instituted. These infections can range from a localized cellulitis to necrotizing fasciitis and Fournier’s gangrene. In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major concern, not just with respect to nosocomial infections, but also because a community-acquired (CA) variant has appeared, unrelated to the hospital-acquired strains. Most CA-MRSA strains produce skin and skin structure infections, which include abscesses and cellulitis.
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